Theory X in Orgs & Digital Marketing Methods
Douglas McGregor developed Theory X and Theory Y in order to describe human behavior and motivation within organizations as well as for the purposes of business management. Theory X describes human beings as extrinsically motivated by external rewards, which requires strict supervision and penalties. This model presumes that employees are possessed of no intrinsic motivation to contribute to the development and implementation of a project, and managers are incrementally more intelligent than the base-level employees. Moreover, employees are regarded as motivated by income alone, and rewards and punishments must be designed in order to train staff to behave in accord with company objectives. This theory may be most applicable to professions that do not make use of an employees creative faculties but rather require simple and repetitious tasks.
Within organizations, this model implements a “hard” and “soft” approach to business management, where the former requires strict supervision, threat of punishment, and punishment. The latter applies more relaxed policies and strives to stimulate positive morale within the workplace in order to foster cooperation. McGreggor has suggested that a balance of these two approaches to management may result in the optimal environment, which enhances consistency of work and uniformity of results. Theory X allows for businesses and organizations to produce higher quantities of high quality work within a specialized domain, because regulations and policies are clear and consistent.
Digital marketing strategies may also apply Theory X models through reward systems that are applied to markets. Treating consumers as free agents that must be persuaded and induced to take a particular action through a system of rewards and reinforcement, digital marketing may be designed with an emphasis upon contrasting pleasure to pain. Incentive programs and "time-limited" take-aways for special offers match the Theory X model of influencing human behavior.
Theory Y in Orgs & Digital Marketing
Theory Y suggests that individuals are intrinsically motivated and strive to engage with the company for the benefit of the group and their self-development.
Those individuals who conform with Theory Y characteristics tend to be the company's most valuable assets, because their intrinsic drive may require less supervision and may produce more creative and high-impact results. Theory Y employees are regarded as engaged with challenges for the purposes of self-actualization, and they derive fulfillment from enhancing their performance within a system. Theory Y managers may engage with their staff 1-on-1 and treat them as equals rather than attempting to coerce them to behave in a particular manner. However, Theory Y management styles may reduce consistency and uniformity of work-product, which could reduce a company's margins.
McGregor has suggested that these two unique approaches to management must be implemented simultaneously in order to produce the optimal balance of intrinsic and extrinsically motivated productivity. Moreover, individuals who conform with Theory X may appear to be possessed of an internal locus of control, wherein external events appear to be linked with their internal drives and personal behaviors, which may cause them to become task-oriented. Conversely, those who appear to conform with Theory Y may hold an external locus of control, wherein their relationships with others become their primary objective in order to produce change in their environment. Managers with an internal locus of control may prefer to focus upon task-functions in order to guide a group's behavior, and managers with an external locus of control may encourage the group to develop and implement strategies (i.e. group intelligence).
Digital Marketing strategies in Washington, DC may deploy Theory Y through focusing upon building relationships with clients in order to discover an intrinsic drive to conduct business with a trusted brand or person. However, a combination approach to digital marketing in DC may focus upon building relationships as a means to enhance the effects of Theory X strategies, where developing rapport is regarded as a "task" that must precede an incentive or inducement to perform a specific action.