Marketing Departments: Max Weber's Bureaucracy
Max Weber's bureaucratic ideal proposed that a hierarchy of super-ordinate and sub-ordinate offices would design and implement rules and processes through the successive layers of a command structure. Therefore, modern digital marketing departments in Washington, DC would need to be managed in accord with written rules and regulations, and marketing management would require training and specialization in order to properly implement those procedures. However, Weber also acknowledged that bureaucracy may result in the accumulation of a disproportionate amount of power for those at the top of the hierarchy, which would result in oligarchy. Therefore, Weber suggested that these systems are both efficient and restrict the free will of the individuals who do not participate in the highest level of the executive group - This could result in a restricted capacity for a digital marketing department in Washington DC to adapt to market conditions. Therefore, digital marketing staff members must have the right to appeal decisions that are made by executive management and others in order to ensure that the organization is possessed of an open flow of communication within a complex system.
Rational System Theory & Scientific Management
The rational system is comprised of Specified Goals and Formalization, where the former serves as the guidelines for project management and implementation, and the latter serves to create uniform organizational behaviors. These stable systems would therefore result in a predictable mechanistic system, which a digital marketing department could implement in order to optimize work-flow.
Frederick Taylor suggested that scientific management would divide work between managers and workers, formulate incentives based upon performance, implement standardized training programs, encourage individual responsibility for assigned tasks (division of labor), and ensure that work is completed efficiently. This is a potential strategy for digital marketing departments in Washington, DC to consider, because this provides a clear framework for professional development within the field of marketing.
Digital Marketing Agencies in DC: Modernization Theory
Modernization theory described the manner in which individuals migrate from rural areas into cities. The development of urban environments was regarded as a natural characteristic of the industrial civilization, because workers must be readily available to industrial manufacturing facilities. Whereas the Western economies believed that modernization through industrialization was the best means by which to achieve progress within a civilization, the Middle Eastern countries believed that modernization could create a gap between the rich and poor. Regardless, the presence of digital marketing platforms in Washington, DC allows for individuals to work from anywhere in the world so long as a high speed internet connection is present. This reduces the cost of overhead (office space) and increases profit margins for companies that prefer to work with a digital marketing agency rather than developing their own, internally managed marketing departments.
Digital Marketing Agency Departments in DC: Neoclassical Perspective
The neoclassical perspective is associated with the Hawthorne studies of the 1920s, wherein affective, sociological, and psychological behavior must be integrated into organizational theories. The Hawthorne study by Elton Mayo and his team demonstrated that the sociological, psychological, and economic needs of employees are critical for developing complete model of human drives and behavior.
The study was conducted at the Western Electric Company's Hawthorne Chicago facility, which produced components for telephone equipment. The study addressed four elements of human productivity, which included illumination, work-hours and working conditions, 20,000 qualitative interviews of worker preferences and experiences, as well as social system analysis. The results of this large seven-year study suggested that productivity could be enhanced through optimizing the relationships between coworkers, as well as between managers and employees. Once more, the salient feature of digital marketing strategies in Washington, DC is focused upon building relationships with both employees and clients in order to optimize workflow. The Hawthorne study was also criticized due to it's strong and potentially disproportionate emphasis upon sociological factors rather than a balanced approach that also addressed organizational efficiency requirements.